Learning Disabilities

A learning disability is a neurological disorder that affects different psychological processes that are needed to effectively use our language system. It can manifest in difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, listening, speaking, thinking, or mathematics. The various kinds of specific learning disabilities include:

  • Dyslexia: problems with reading, spelling, and writing (including transposing letters and pronunciation difficulties).
  • Aphasia: difficulties with processing, speaking, or understanding language.
  • Dyscalculia: problems with mathematical computations and concepts.
  • Dysgraphia: difficulties with handwriting, spelling, and letter spacing.
  • Dyspraxia: problems with gross motor tasks (walking) or fine motor tasks (handling a pencil for writing or drawing).
  • Visual or Auditory Processing: difficulties in understanding information presented through visual or auditory mediums; trouble with understanding directions or following a conversation, spatial relationships, or social distances.
  • Short- and Long-term Memory: problems with encoding or retrieving memories.

Every individual with a learning disability is unique and shows varying combinations of weaknesses and strengths. Often there are significant discrepancies between one’s intelligence and level of achievement or performance that would be expected. Finding early and targeted interventions is essential in minimizing the effects that a learning disability may have on academic or work success, motivation, and self-esteem.

David Sandrow, Ph.D., Psychologist, Director of Testing, works hard to provide accurate assessment and appropriate treatment recommendations so that you or your child will receive the important assistance he or she needs to succeed.  Psychological testing and assessment are often the beginning stages of determining what is at the core of one’s problems.  The process can help expedite what have been long-term and unanswered questions and lead to productive changes.

For individuals that are students, educational testing can be a powerful mechanism to assist in leveling the playing field with certain accommodations being afforded:

  • Extended time on tests (e.g., FCAT, SAT, ACT, GRE, LSAT, MCAT, etc.)
  • Distraction free environment for tests
  • Use of a calculator
  • Use of a word processer for writing
  • Substitution or waived courses

This assistance can extend into college and graduate school and help make the difference in following through on one’s academic goals.  Please see attached brochure (Finding the Gift Within) for more information.

In addition, Dr. Sandrow is a trained coach for Cogmed, a working memory training program that has shown excellent results for improving attention, reducing distractibility, and enhancing working memory.  Please visit www.cogmed.com for more information.

Please contact David Sandrow, Ph.D., Psychologist, Director of Testing, if you have further questions (DSandrow@miamicounseling.com).